The Nawab of Bengal, Siraj ud-Daulah, condemned the militarisation and tax evasion by the company.His warning went unheeded, and the Nawab attacked; he captured Fort William which led to the killings of several East India company officials in the Black Hole of Calcutta.These rights were transferred to the East India Company in 1698.Facing frequent skirmishes with French forces, the British began to upgrade their fortifications in 1756.In the 19th century, the Bengal Renaissance brought about an increased sociocultural sophistication among city denizens.
Job Charnock, an administrator who worked for the company, was formerly credited as the founder of the city; The area occupied by the present-day city encompassed three villages: Kalikata, Gobindapur, and Sutanuti.
In the early 19th century, the marshes surrounding the city were drained; the government area was laid out along the banks of the Hooghly River.
Richard Wellesley, Governor-General of the Presidency of Fort William between 17, was largely responsible for the development of the city and its public architecture.
In 1985, prime minister Rajiv Gandhi dubbed Kolkata a "dying city" in light of its socio-political woes.
In the period 1977–2011, West Bengal was governed from Kolkata by the Left Front, which was dominated by the Communist Party of India (CPM).